# Using the Sortino Ratio to Boost Portfolio Performance

Our Complete Guide to the Sortino Ratio

The Sortino Ratio is a key tool for investors who want to measure their investments’ performance by focusing on downside risk. This ratio improves on the widely used Sharpe Ratio by considering only the negative deviation of asset returns.

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The primary benefit of the Sortino Ratio is that it helps investors understand the risk of losing money, which is often a more significant concern than overall volatility.

Many investors find that the Sortino Ratio offers a clearer picture of an investment’s performance, especially for portfolios with skewed return distributions.

### Key Takeaways

• The Sortino Ratio focuses on downside risk.
• It is useful for evaluating investments with skewed returns.
• The ratio is practical for modern portfolios.
• The Sortino Ratio provides a more targeted analysis compared to the Sharpe Ratio.
• Investors can use the Sortino Ratio to identify investments that offer strong risk-adjusted returns.

Measuring an investment’s performance relative to the risk of negative returns gives a more realistic assessment of potential losses. This makes the Sortino Ratio highly valuable for those looking to optimize their portfolios and achieve better risk-adjusted returns.

## Understanding the Sortino Ratio

The Sortino Ratio is a financial metric used to evaluate the risk-adjusted performance of an investment. It focuses on downside risk and helps investors make informed decisions by distinguishing between harmful volatility and overall volatility.

### Definition and Calculation

The Sortino Ratio measures an investment’s return relative to its downside risk. Unlike the Sharpe Ratio, which uses standard deviation, the Sortino Ratio uses downside deviation, which focuses only on negative fluctuations.

To calculate it, the formula is:

`Sortino Ratio = (Investment Return - Risk-Free Rate of Return) / Downside Deviation`

Where:

• Investment Return is the average return of the investment over a specific period.
• Risk-Free Rate of Return is the rate of return on a risk-free investment, such as government bonds.
• Downside Deviation is the standard deviation of negative returns.

### Interpreting the Result

A higher Sortino Ratio indicates better risk-adjusted performance. The ideal result would be a positive number, with a larger positive number indicating better performance. A negative result suggests that the investment is not performing well enough to compensate for its downside risk.

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### A Practical Example

When evaluating an investment using the Sortino ratio, let’s consider a hypothetical scenario with two different portfolios. Portfolio A has an average return of 10% over the past year, while Portfolio B has an average return of 12%. The risk-free rate of return, based on government bonds, is 3%. Now, let’s factor in the downside deviation, which measures the standard deviation of negative returns. Portfolio A has a downside deviation of 5%, while Portfolio B has a downside deviation of 3%.

To calculate the Sortino ratio for each portfolio, we use the formula:

`Sortino Ratio = (Investment Return - Risk-Free Rate of Return) / Downside Deviation. `

• For Portfolio A: (10% – 3%) / 5% = 1.4
• For Portfolio B: (12% – 3%) / 3% = 3

In this example, Portfolio B has a higher Sortino ratio of 3, indicating better risk-adjusted performance compared to Portfolio A, with a Sortino ratio of 1.4. This means that Portfolio B not only has a higher return but also achieves this return with lower downside risk, making it a more attractive investment option from a risk-adjusted standpoint.

## Screening & Portfolio Software Supporting Sortino

According to my decades of testing and comparing software, Portfolio 123 is the only platform that supports the Sortino and Sharpe ratios.

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## Comparison with Other Metrics

The Sortino Ratio can be used in conjunction with other metrics, such as the Sharpe Ratio or Jensen’s Alpha, to get a more comprehensive understanding of an investment’s risk and return profile.

The higher the ratio, the better the risk-adjusted performance of an investment. A high Sortino Ratio indicates that an investment has achieved returns with minimal downside risk.

### Why It’s Useful

The Sortino Ratio is particularly useful for evaluating investments with skewed returns, such as hedge funds or private equity. These types of investments often have high volatility and can experience significant losses in a short period. The Sortino Ratio takes this into account by focusing on downside risk, providing a more accurate assessment of an investment’s performance.

It is also practical for modern portfolios that include non-traditional assets, such as cryptocurrencies or alternative investments. Analysts often use the Sortino Ratio alongside other performance measures to build a more comprehensive view of an investment’s risk and return profile. This ratio is especially relevant in modern investment strategies that include assets like electric vehicles and renewable energy, as highlighted in studies on portfolio optimization.

### Comparison with Sharpe Ratio

While both ratios evaluate risk-adjusted performance, they differ in the type of risk they consider. The Sharpe Ratio uses the standard deviation of returns, treating upside and downside volatility equally. This can be misleading for conservative investors.

In contrast, the Sortino Ratio focuses only on downside risk or losses below a certain threshold. This makes it more useful for evaluating investments where downside protection is crucial.

The Sharpe Ratio tends to overestimate risk by including positive returns, whereas the Sortino Ratio provides a clearer picture of the risk associated with negative returns. This distinction is crucial for risk-averse investors.

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## Use in Investment Strategies

The Sortino Ratio plays a crucial role in assessing risk and performance in various investment strategies. It helps portfolio managers and investors make informed decisions by focusing on downside risk, providing a more accurate measure of risk-adjusted returns.

### Portfolio Management

In portfolio management, the Sortino Ratio is essential for selecting and evaluating assets. It improves on the Sharpe Ratio by differentiating between harmful volatility and total volatility, making it more suitable for portfolios with varied risk profiles.

Portfolio managers use the Sortino Ratio to create a well-balanced portfolio. By focusing on downside risk, they can better align investments with specific goals and risk tolerance levels. For instance, it allows managers to pick mutual funds or asset classes that offer higher returns with lower downside risk.

Additionally, the Sortino Ratio helps in adjusting the asset allocation dynamically. As market conditions change, it guides managers to shift investments from higher-risk assets to those with more stable, favorable returns.

### Performance Evaluation

When evaluating the performance of investments, particularly mutual funds, the Sortino Ratio provides a clearer picture of risk-adjusted returns. Unlike the Sharpe Ratio, it penalizes only the downside deviation, making it a preferred choice for many investors.

Investors and analysts use the Sortino Ratio to compare different investment strategies. By focusing on the portfolio return relative to the risk of losing money, it highlights which strategies are more effective in delivering consistent performance.

For instance, studies show that using the Sortino Ratio for performance evaluation can reveal superior investment strategies. This can be useful in identifying funds or assets that might not appear attractive based on other metrics but are actually delivering better risk-adjusted results.

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## Analyzing Sortino Ratio Results

The Sortino Ratio is a useful analytical tool that helps investors evaluate an investment’s risk-adjusted performance by focusing on downside volatility instead of total volatility. Understanding high and low ratios and the importance of downside volatility can aid in making informed decisions.

### Interpreting High and Low Ratios

A high Sortino Ratio indicates that an investment has a high return compared to its downside risk. This means that the investment will achieve positive returns with minimal risk. Investors prefer high ratios as they suggest a favorable risk profile.

Conversely, a low Sortino Ratio shows that an investment has a higher downside risk compared to its returns. It could be experiencing frequent negative returns or fewer excess returns above the target return. This signals a less favorable risk-return balance.

When using the Sortino Ratio, it is essential to compare it with the risk profiles of similar investments. This comparison can reveal if an investment is underperforming in terms of the expected return. Monthly returns can also offer insight into how consistent the investment’s performance is over time.

### The Importance of Downside Volatility

Downside volatility measures the risk of negative returns, which is crucial in assessing bad risk. It focuses on the negative deviation from the target return, ignoring upside volatility. This makes the Sortino Ratio more sensitive to potential losses than other metrics like the Sharpe Ratio.

Minimizing downside volatility is key to protecting against significant losses. Investments with low downside volatility tend to have a smoother return profile and are better suited for risk-averse investors. By focusing on downside risk, the Sortino Ratio provides a clearer picture of an investment’s risk-adjusted performance, helping to identify those with stable and dependable returns.

In summary, the Sortino Ratio separates good risk (positive returns) from bad risk, ensuring a thorough analysis of downside volatility and its implications on overall investment performance.

## Limitations and Considerations

The Sortino Ratio is a useful financial tool, but it has its limitations and considerations. Both comparative and statistical aspects must be understood for a complete analysis.

### Comparative Limitations

The Sortino Ratio addresses some issues found in the Sharpe Ratio by only considering downside risk. This means it looks at negative stock returns rather than overall variance. However, this focus can sometimes overlook other important factors, such as the positive skewness of returns.

Bonds and Excess Returns: Bonds and other stable investments may show low Sortino Ratios despite consistent performance. This happens because of their lower volatility in excess returns, which makes the interpretation less relevant in those cases.

Moreover, while the Sortino Ratio can remove some of the noise caused by infrequent extreme positive returns, it may not always provide a complete risk assessment for all types of investments.

### Statistical Limitations

Statistically, the Sortino Ratio relies heavily on the normal distribution of returns. It assumes that returns below a certain threshold (target or required rate) are all equally undesirable, which might not always reflect reality. For instance, slight deviations from the target can still be acceptable to some investors.

Variance and Risk: Unlike the Sharpe Ratio, which considers variance in calculating risk, the Sortino Ratio may give a skewed view when returns have non-normal distributions. Skewness in the data can affect how risk is perceived.

Additionally, the computational method of the Sortino Ratio can sometimes lead to interpretations that might not fully capture the investment’s long-term risk profile. This statistical tool may, therefore, offer a simplified view, missing some nuances in a complex market environment.

## FAQ

### What is the best software for charting and analyzing the Sortino Ratio?

Portfolio 123 is the best software for screening and charting advanced financial metrics like the Sortino Ratio. Our testing shows it offers the widest array of metrics and ratios available on the market today.

### How is the Sortino ratio calculated?

The Sortino ratio is calculated by taking the difference between the portfolio's return and the risk-free rate and then dividing it by the downside deviation. It acknowledges only the downside risk, which puts more emphasis on protecting against losses.

### Is there a good screener available to identify the Sortino Ratio?

Yes, Portfolio 123 provides a screener that can filter stocks based on their Sortino Ratio. It helps investors quickly identify risk.

### What signifies a high or low Sortino ratio?

A high Sortino ratio indicates that the investment returns are high relative to the downside risk, meaning the portfolio is performing well. A low Sortino ratio suggests that the returns are low when considering the risk of negative returns, indicating poor performance.

### Can you give an example of how to apply the Sortino ratio?

Suppose a portfolio has an annual return of 12%, a risk-free rate of 2%, and a downside deviation of 5%. The Sortino ratio would be (12% - 2%) / 5% = 2. This means the portfolio generates returns that are two times the downside risk.

### What is the difference between the Sortino ratio and the Sharpe ratio?

The Sortino ratio only considers downside deviation, while the Sharpe ratio includes total variability. The Sortino ratio is preferred when the focus is on managing losses, as it offers a clearer picture of negative performance variability.

### How does the Sortino ratio differ from the Calmar ratio?

The Calmar ratio compares the average annual return to the maximum drawdown. While the Sortino ratio measures returns relative to downside risk, the Calmar ratio measures performance relative to the worst loss, giving a more extreme view of risk.

### In what ways does the information ratio contrast with the Sortino ratio?

The information ratio assesses performance relative to a benchmark, emphasizing consistency of returns. On the other hand, the Sortino ratio focuses on absolute returns while managing downside risk. This makes the information ratio ideal for comparing managers, whereas the Sortino ratio is better for understanding downside risk.

With a wealth of experience spanning 25 years in stock investing and trading, Barry D. Moore (CFTe) is an author and Certified Financial Technician (Market Analyst) recognized by the International Federation of Technical Analysts (IFTA). Notably, he has also held executive positions in leading Silicon Valley corporations IBM Corp. and Hewlett Packard Inc.